The new coronavirus Covid-19 paralyzed for more than a quarter of humanity through various schemes of quarantine in which -in most cases – the common pattern is that people stay in their homes.
The virus SARS-CoV-2 changed the lives of millions around the world, but more to Jennifer Haller, a citizen of Seattle, the united States, to whom the march 16, was given an experimental vaccine against this pathogen.
“There has been an overwhelming positivity, love and prayers of strangers from around the world deseándome successes,” said Haller, sharing your experience, that of being the first person outside of China to receive an experimental vaccine. “We all feel so helpless, right?, but the idea of a vaccine was one of the few things that happened that gives people something to cling to”, he added.
It will be a long road, since according to estimates of the scientists that develop it, the company of Modern biotechnology, this manufacturing process would take at least 18 months. This company, along with the china CanSino Biologics are the first to launch clinical trials of vaccines against the Covid-19.
According to what was published by the prestigious scientific journal Science Mag of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), will test now to see if you are safe and if they can trigger immune responses.
Like the essay that began with Jennifer Haller, the company Tiresome, too, began their trial on march 16, according to researchers from the Institute of Biotechnology of the chinese army that collaborates actively with the project.
According to a list drawn up by the World Health Organization (WHO) there are already at least 52 other candidates to develop a vaccine that could soon arise. For Lawrence Corey, a virologist in the Cancer Research Center Fred Hutchinson, “this is a response wonderful of the biomedical community in front of a pandemic.” This institution has carried out trials of vaccines against a dozen diseases, but this opportunity is not involved in the joint effort against the new coronavirus.
These vaccines are grouped into eight different platforms, among them the old reserves as whole viruses inactivated or weakened, protein, genetically modified, and the new technology of messenger RNA; the backbone of the project of Modern and their manufacturers include biotechnology, theory of the scientific academy, researchers and military and some of the pharmaceutical companies more important in the world.
The last march 30, the company Johnson & Johnson announced a project of vaccine Covid-19 1 billion, with half of the resources coming from the Research and Development Authority Biomedical Advanced of the united States.
Many viruses, including HIV and hepatitis C have been frustrated developers of vaccines. But the new coronavirus does not seem to be a target particularly formidable. Changes slowly, which means that it is not very good for dodging the immune system and vaccines against coronavirus-related that cause the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and the Respiratory Syndrome Middle East (MERS) have worked in animal models.
Corey manages the Network of Vaccine Trials against HIV in the united States, which has seen a vaccine candidate after trial and error, is optimistic about the vaccine against the SARS-CoV-2: “I don’t believe that to develop the vaccine against the COVID-19 is going to be so difficult”.
The scientific community shares a concern: if individuals develop a lasting immunity to the virus, which is critical given that vaccines attempt to mimic a natural infection. Infections with the four human coronaviruses, which usually cause colds, mild does not trigger an immunity that lasts in the time.
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On the other hand, researchers have found immune responses lasting to the viruses that cause SARS, MERS, and genetically they seem much closer to the SARS-CoV-2, and unlike the viruses that cause the common cold, that is to say the flu, that remain in the nose and in the throat, the new coronavirus is directed to the lower respiratory tract, “where the immune response to a pathogen can be more strong,” said Mark Slifka, an immunologist who studies vaccines at the Oregon National Primate Research Center. “When you have an infection in the lungs, you actually get high levels of antibodies and other immune cells in the bloodstream in that space,” he added.
Even with this total effort, Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID, for its acronym in English) of usa. UU., predicts that getting a vaccine to the public, “it will take at least a year, a year and a half,” And Fauci added that “at least” because the side effects, the problems of dosing and the manufacturing problems may cause delays. Some are already asking for a shortcut ethically controversial to accelerate the clinical trials to give people vaccines in trial period and then try to intentionally infect them with SARS-CoV-2 to see if they are protected.
Could also be made available to a new vaccine for health care workers and other high-risk individuals even before the completion of efficacy trials of phase III. Stanley Perlman, a veteran researcher of the coronavirus at the University of Iowa, “a vaccine that offers only limited protection and durability might be good enough, at first, in this kind of environment, epidemic, whenever you have something to help us and to avoid many deaths, that may be right,” he mused.