Gasoline price is one of the main demands of truck driver mobilizations that take place throughout Brazil, but do you know how the price of fuel is calculated? A number of factors influence the current price, which continues to grow, and the values defined by Petrobrás are key to understanding the increases.
The values of the state-owned company, for example, are based on the import parity prices (PPI), that is, they follow the variations of the product in the international market and of the exchange rate. This guideline was started in 2016 and, with the dollar on the rise, prices tend to increase. Since December 2020, for example, the barrel of oil of the Brent type, an international reference, has accumulated an increase of around 8%.
In addition to the international scenario, consumers pay more than just gasoline when filling up: fuel corresponds to 30.5% of the total value, while state and federal taxes account for 44.3% of the price.
A lie, however, has been widely shared in recent years: that the State Tax on Circulation of Goods and Services accounts for more than half the price and that federal taxes would have been zeroed. However, the Circulation Tax on Goods and Services (ICMS) does not correspond to 28% of the total price.
There is also no federal zero tax on fuels. According to a survey carried out by Petrobras in July, federal government taxes account for 11.9% of the price of gasoline. In addition, official data attest that the main factor to weigh on the increase in the price of gasoline in recent months was not the ICMS, but the adjustments made by Petrobras.
While the ICMS had a real increase of 34 cents between 2018 and 2021, the readjustment in oil prices in refineries, tabled according to the international market, was 51%.
Between January and April 2021, the increase in value was 0.7%. As the tax charged is fixed at 28%, if the price at the refineries increases the price of fuel, the tax has a higher collection, even though it continues with the same percentage.
To help you understand, just remember that 28% of 5 reais is 1 reais and forty cents, while 28% of 6 reais is 1 reais and sixty-eight cents.
There is also anhydrous ethane (12%), which prevents the separation of water from the fuel and is required by law.
From a logistical point of view, to complete, it is necessary to consider the resale margin and the cost of transport, freight and distribution (12.9%), which can be a critical point for states farther away from large centers, such as Pará and Acre.