Looking far beyond the solar system, astronomers have added a concrete prediction of an important event happening deep in intergalactic space: a gigantic explosion of a star, dubbed the Supernova Requiem, around the year 2037.
Although this relay is not visible to the naked eye, some future telescopes should be able to detect it, as detailed by the US Space Agency (NASA) in a statement,
It turns out that this future appearance will be the fourth known view of the same supernova, magnified, illuminated, and split into images separated by a huge cluster of foreground galaxies acting as cosmic zoom lenses.
Three supernova images were first found from archival data taken in 2016 by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope.
The multiple images are produced by the powerful gravity of the monstrous cluster of galaxies, which distorts and magnifies the supernova light far behind it, an effect called the gravitational lens.
As detailed by NASA, first predicted by Albert Einstein, this effect is similar to a glass lens that bends light to magnify the image of a distant object.
The three-lens supernova images, seen as tiny dots captured in a single Hubble snapshot, represent light from the result of the gigantic explosion. The dots vary in brightness and color, meaning three different phases of the explosion fade as it cools over time.
The light that Hubble captured from the cluster, MACS J0138.0-2155, took about four billion years to reach Earth. The light from the Supernova Requiem took about 10 billion years for its journey, based on its distance from its host galaxy.
Astronomers detect that gigantic star explosion will occur in the depths of intergalactic space
The team’s prediction of the supernova return appearance is based on computer models of the cluster, which describe the various paths supernova light is taking through the labyrinth of dark matter clustered in the galactic cluster.
As detailed by NASA, dark matter is an invisible material that comprises most of the matter in the universe and is the scaffold on which galaxies and galaxy clusters are built.
Each magnified image follows a different route through the cluster and arrives at Earth at a different time, due in part to differences in the length of the paths the supernova light followed.
He compares the supernova’s multiple light paths with multiple trains leaving a station at the same time, all traveling at the same speed and going to the same location. Each train, however, follows a different route, and the distance for each route is not the same.
As detailed by NASA, as trains travel along different lengths of tracks over different terrain, they don’t reach their destination at the same time.
In addition, the lensed supernova image expected to appear in 2037 lags behind other images of the same supernova because its light travels directly through the middle of the cluster, where the densest amount of dark matter resides.
The immense mass of the cluster bends the light, producing the longest time delay.
Depths of intergalactic space – gigantic explosion
Lens supernova images were discovered in 2019 by Gabe Brammer, a co-author of the study at the Cosmic Dawn Center at the Niels Bohr Institute at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Brammer spotted supernova mirror images while analyzing distant galaxies magnified by massive foreground galaxy clusters as part of an ongoing Hubble program called REsolved QUIEscent Magnified Galaxies (REQUIEM).
As detailed by NASA, he was comparing new REQUIEM data from 2019 with archival images taken in 2016 from a science program other than Hubble.
A tiny red object in the 2016 data caught his eye, which he initially thought was a faraway galaxy. But he had disappeared in the 2019 footage.
Brammer joined Rodney to conduct further analysis of the system. Lens supernova images are arranged in an arc around the cluster’s core. They appear as tiny dots next to the speckled orange features believed to be the magnified snapshots of the supernova’s host galaxy.
Study co-author Johan Richard, from the University of Lyon, France, produced a map of the amount of dark matter in the cluster, inferred from the lenses it produces.
As detailed by NASA, the map shows the predicted locations of lensed objects. This supernova is predicted to appear again in 2042, but it will be so weak that the research team thinks it won’t be visible.
NASA Space Telescope
Catching the replay of the explosive event will help astronomers measure the time delays between the four supernova images, which will offer clues to the type of deformed terrain the light from the exploded star had to cover. Armed with these measurements, researchers can adjust the models that map the mass of the cluster.
The development of accurate dark matter maps of massive galaxy clusters is another way for astronomers to measure the rate of expansion of the universe and investigate the nature of dark energy, a mysterious form of energy that works against gravity and causes the cosmos. expand at a faster rate.
Detecting supernova images with lenses will become increasingly common over the next 20 years with the launch of NASA’s Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope and the start of operations at the Vera C. Rubin Observatory. Both telescopes will observe large areas of the sky, which will allow them to locate dozens of multi-image supernovae.
Also according to the information, future telescopes, such as NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope, may also detect light from the Requiem supernova at other times during the explosion. Check out:
Text with NASA information