Three scientists received the 2021 Nobel Prize in Physics for their work to understand complex systems such as the Earth’s climate.
Syukuro Manabe, Klaus Hasselmann and Giorgio Parisi were announced as this year’s winners at a press conference in Stockholm.
Winners will split the cash prize of 10 million SEK (BRL 6.25 million).
The award was created from the wish of the Swedish chemist and industrialist Alfred Nobel (1833-1896), who included it in his will, written a year before his death in 1896.
The Nobel Committee said Manabe and Hasselmann “established the basis of our knowledge about the Earth’s climate and how humanity influences it.”
According to the prize organizers, Parisi’s discoveries made it “possible to understand and describe many different and seemingly entirely random materials and phenomena”.
This understanding applies not only to physics, but also to very different areas such as mathematics, biology, neuroscience and machine learning (an area of artificial intelligence).
A total of 218 individuals have won the physics prize since it was first awarded in 1901.
Only four of these laureates are women. A physicist, John Bardeen, won the award twice – in 1956 and 1972.
Previous Nobel Prize Winners in Physics
2020 – Roger Penrose, Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez received the award for their work on the nature of black holes.
2019 – James Peebles, Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz shared the award for innovative discoveries about the Universe.
2018 – Donna Strickland, Arthur Ashkin and Gerard Mourou received the award for their discoveries in the field of laser physics.
2017 – Rainer Weiss, Kip Thorne and Barry Barish received the award for detecting gravitational waves.
2016 – David Thouless, Duncan Haldane and Michael Kosterlitz shared the award for their work in rare phases of the matter.
2015 – Takaaki Kajita and Arthur McDonald received the award for discovering that neutrinos alternate between different “flavors”.