Each investment has its specific objective. For example, if you want to invest for the long term, we have the IPCA Treasury, equities, ETFs and FIIs. For the short term, we have other options, such as LCI, LCAs, CDBs and Treasury Selic.
These last two are very similar and have similar characteristics. This ends up creating confusion and brings some doubts about which is the best, which pays the most and which is the safest. Therefore, I made a battle of investments in which I compare and show which is the best: CDB or Treasury Selic.
The security that CDBs have comes from the institution itself, that is, good banks, and from the FGC, which is a fund that guarantees up to R$ 250,000 reais per CPF, per financial institution. The Selic Treasury, on the other hand, has a sovereign guarantee, the government guarantees this amount and this makes it the safest investment we have in Brazil. In relation to this point, both are quite safe, however, the Selic Treasury has a small advantage.
The time it takes you to redeem your investment and turn it into cash is what we call liquidity. When you redeem on the same day, liquidity is immediate (T+0) and when you receive your cash on the next business day, then liquidity is called daily (T+1).
The treasure Selic can be redeemed in 1 business day, since the CDBs have different forms of liquidity, including daily. Those CDBs today they are not so easy to find at brokerages. In digital banks it is easier. For this aspect, both have daily liquidity.
Today, it is a little difficult to find CDBs below R$1,000, but in digital banks it is possible to find some options starting at R$1. The Treasury Selic now has 2 values: R$110.05 due in 2024 and R$ $108.88 due 2027. The advantage here is the CDBs if you use digital banks.
CDBs follow the CDI rate, which in turn follows the Selic rate, which is the basic interest rate in Brazil. The CDI always follows the Selic rate, but yields a little below it. The Selic rate yields 6.25% per year and the CDI yields 6.15% per year.
Although these rates are different, there is little difference between them. For an amount of R$1,000 for a period of 1 year, at Treasury Selic you will have R$1,064.22 and at CDB you will have R$1,062.95. The Selic Treasury here has an advantage, despite being small.
Both have income tax discount on redemption. The tax is deducted from the profit you made on your investment and is regressive, starting with 22.5% for up to 180 days of investment, 20% for 180 to 360 days, 17.5% for 360 to 720 days and above 360 days tax will be 15%.
Which one is the best?
If you are looking for an investment with security and for a short term objective, the Treasury Selic may be the best investment. If you have the option of investing a little more or waiting a little longer for your redemption, the CDB may be better, as it is not so easy to find CDBs with the same value as the Selic Treasury and daily liquidity. Do you already invest in these assets? Which of these do you prefer?